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S-1/A
PROTEON THERAPEUTICS INC filed this Form S-1/A on 10/07/2014
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      undergoing creation of a radiocephalic AVF in the third quarter of 2014. Prior to completing enrollment in the first Phase 3 trial, we will initiate our second Phase 3 trial in the first half of 2015. If the results of the first Phase 3 trial are sufficiently compelling, we intend to meet with the FDA to discuss the possibility of submitting a BLA supported by the single Phase 3 trial and may decide to submit a BLA to the FDA prior to completing the second Phase 3 trial.

    Commercialize PRT-201 directly in the United States.  If PRT-201 is approved by the FDA, we intend to commercialize it ourselves in the United States with a specialty hospital sales force focused primarily on vascular surgeons. There are approximately 2,800 vascular surgeons in the United States. In 2011, according to the U.S. Renal Data System 2013 Annual Data Report, there were approximately 395,000 hemodialysis patients in the United States at the end of the year. Based on various third-party sources, we estimate that approximately 130,000 AVFs are placed annually. We believe a specialty hospital sales force of approximately 75-100 representatives will enable us to call on the approximately 1,300 hospitals that account for more than 90% of the AVF surgical placements performed in the United States annually. We believe that PRT-201's potential benefits to patients undergoing surgical creation of an AVF will result in its broad adoption.
    Undertake clinical development of PRT-201 in Europe and establish partnerships for commercialization of PRT-201 in all or parts of Europe.  We are currently evaluating our existing clinical program to support filing in Europe. We may, based on additional data including the data from our Phase 3 clinical trials in the United States and if sufficient funds become available, choose to conduct a clinical trial of PRT-201 in Europe. We estimate that there are approximately 316,000 hemodialysis patients in Europe. Prior to enrolling our first patient in Europe, we plan to formally seek guidance from the European Medicines Agency, or EMA, regarding its requirements for regulatory approval. We expect results from this trial to be available two to three years after the first patient is enrolled. If this European trial successfully meets its primary endpoint and depending on the guidance obtained from the EMA, we would expect to submit a Marketing Authorization Application, or MAA. If PRT-201 is approved by the EMA, we intend to commercialize it in some European countries with our own specialty hospital sales force and/or with a commercial partner in the other European countries. Like in the United States, we intend to target both vascular surgeons who create AVFs as well as key referring nephrologists.
    Pursue additional indications for PRT-201.  We believe that our Phase 2 clinical data support further development of PRT-201 in brachiocephalic AVF placement. We may, based on additional data including the data from our Phase 3 clinical trials and if sufficient funds become available, study the effects of a 30 microgram dose of PRT-201 versus placebo on brachiocephalic AVFs. If this trial successfully meets its primary endpoint, we would expect to submit a supplemental BLA, or sBLA, to the FDA and a supplemental MAA, or sMAA, to the EMA. Further, if sufficient funds become available and after reviewing the results from our Phase 3 clinical trials, we may commence a clinical trial of PRT-201 in patients undergoing placement of an arteriovenous graft, or AVG. We believe PRT-201's potential to reduce neointimal hyperplasia could offer a significant medical benefit in these patients.
    Establish partnerships for development and commercialization of PRT-201 in Japan and other Asian countries.  We estimate that there are approximately 295,000 patients on hemodialysis in Japan and more than 750,000 throughout all of Asia. Approximately 90% of Japanese hemodialysis patients receive AVFs. We may enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of PRT-201 in Asia.
    In-license or acquire additional product opportunities.  We plan to search for additional product opportunities that could be sold and marketed by the specialty hospital sales force required to successfully launch PRT-201 in the United States if it is approved for marketing.

Background on Hemodialysis

        Healthy kidneys serve many functions, including removing waste and excess water, helping to control blood pressure and keeping electrolytes, such as sodium and potassium, in balance. Patients with CKD,

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